I've heard it said several times that dogs should work for you because they want to please you. I know that my boy, Shadow, certainly falls more into the "wanting to please me" category than Willow. However, I think I can attribute his willingness to the fact that he actually enjoys the process of learning, so finds that inherently rewarding. Of course, he still gets loads of lovely treats, and I'm not kidding myself that we could do any sort of proofing without treats, but he certainly sparkles when he gets the click or the "good" when he's working out a behaviour. That's just part of his goofy nature, though, and you couldn't expect all dogs to be the same. Willow certainly isn't. I've been witness to the other side of the coin this morning. On our early walk, we were about halfway round our loop, when the pisters started avalanche blasting on the mountain. Willow was scared and stuck to me like glue. It was super slippy out and, since she wouldn't leave my side of her own volition, I had to ask her to sit and stay whilst I was walking (sliding) down a slippery bank, for fear I'd fall on her. She behaved impeccably and then came directly back to my side when released. Instead of finding this gratifying, it was upsetting to me because, even though it's good that she trusts me, I could see how her behaviour was being motivated by her fear rather than reinforcement. Of course, I still offered her treats (which she took when offered close to her, but she wouldn't chase for), but she wasn't really interested in them. As we got closer to home, she started to trot a little bit ahead, but would then suddenly stop, look around and then come back to me. Again, you could tell this was motivated by fear; she didn't want to stray too far from me for fear something bad would happen (the boom). Not that I had any hesitations anyway, but seeing this behaviour influenced by aversives, however unintentional, made me reaffirm my decision that +R is the right path for me and my dogs.