They tend to be out when it's cooler, so morning and evening. The times you want to be walking dogs in the summer. We very, very rarely get them on our land, because we have no water, but it certainly affects us taking them to the river in the summer, when we'd be doing so out of the main heat of the day. The couple of times we've seen them around our house, it's been when it's rained overnight or the previous day. Luckily, that doesn't happen much in the summer. Yes, they can carry leishmaniasis, which is scary, for us as well as the dogs! I've read it's actually very rare for dogs to be affected by the disease even if bitten by an infected fly, but the risk is there, and it's a horrible, horrible illness. I need to read up more on the vaccine. Even if they have that, I still need to find a better solution to stop Willow being bitten, but I'm not sure if the collar is that, either. My sister's cocker spaniel was terribly bitten by sand flies and mosquitoes whilst wearing a new, well-fitted Scalibor collar.